Office-based care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth

Pediatrics. 2013 Jul;132(1):e297-313. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1283.


The American Academy of Pediatrics issued its last statement on homosexuality and adolescents in 2004. This technical report reflects the rapidly expanding medical and psychosocial literature about sexual minority youth. Pediatricians should be aware that some youth in their care may have concerns or questions about their sexual orientation or that of siblings, friends, parents, relatives, or others and should provide factual, current, nonjudgmental information in a confidential manner. Although most lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning(LGBTQ) youth are quite resilient and emerge from adolescence as healthy adults, the effects of homophobia and heterosexism can contribute to increased mental health issues for sexual minority youth. LGBTQ and MSM/WSW (men having sex with men and women having sex with women) adolescents, in comparison with heterosexual adolescents,have higher rates of depression and suicidal ideation, high errates of substance abuse, and more risky sexual behaviors. Obtaining a comprehensive, confidential, developmentally appropriate adolescent psychosocial history allows for the discovery of strengths and assets as well as risks. Pediatricians should have offices that are teen-friendly and welcoming to sexual minority youth. This includes having supportive, engaging office staff members who ensure that there are no barriers to care. For transgender youth, pediatricians should provide the opportunity to acknowledge and affirm their feelings of gender dysphoria and desires to transition to the opposite gender. Referral of transgender youth to a qualified mental health professional is critical to assist with the dysphoria, to educate them,and to assess their readiness for transition. With appropriate assistance and care, sexual minority youth should live healthy, productive lives while transitioning through adolescence and young adulthood.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adolescent
  • Ambulatory Care*
  • Bisexuality / psychology*
  • Cooperative Behavior
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder / epidemiology
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Female
  • Gender Identity
  • Health Status Disparities
  • Homophobia / psychology
  • Homosexuality, Female / psychology*
  • Homosexuality, Male / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Interdisciplinary Communication
  • Male
  • Medical History Taking
  • Parent-Child Relations
  • Physician-Patient Relations*
  • Sex Education*
  • Sex Reassignment Procedures / psychology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / diagnosis
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology
  • Suicidal Ideation
  • Transgender Persons / psychology*
  • United States
  • Unsafe Sex