Toxicity evaluation of standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino

J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Aug 26;149(1):228-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.027. Epub 2013 Jun 21.


Ethnopharmacological relevance: To evaluate the safety of standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in rats.

Materials and methods: The water extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum was prepared and standardized, the dry powder yielded 6% gypenosides. In the acute oral toxicity test, the single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract was given to female Sprague-Dawley rats. In subchronic toxicity test, the oral dose of 1000 mg/kg/day of the extract was given to rats in treatment and satellite groups for 90 days. Satellite groups of both sexes were kept for additional 28 days after 90-day treatment. Control rats received distilled water.

Results: Standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum did not cause death or any toxic signs in rats. The daily administration of the extract for 90 days did not produce lethal or harmful effects. Although certain hematological and blood chemistry values (i.e., neutrophil, monocyte, glucose, and serum alkaline phosphatase levels) were found to be statistically different from the control group, however; these values were within the ranges of normal rats.

Conclusion: Standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum did not produce mortality or any abnormality in rats.

Keywords: ALP; ALT; AST; Acute; BUN; Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; HPLC; LDL; Safety; Subchronic; Toxicity; WBC; alanine aminotransferase; alkaline phosphatase; aspartate aminotransferase; blood urea nitrogen; high performance liquid chromatography; low density lipoprotein; white blood cell.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Ethnopharmacology*
  • Female
  • Gynostemma / chemistry*
  • Gynostemma / growth & development
  • Male
  • Organ Specificity
  • Plant Components, Aerial / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / standards
  • Plant Extracts / toxicity*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Thailand
  • Toxicity Tests, Acute
  • Toxicity Tests, Subchronic


  • Plant Extracts