New developments in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer

CA Cancer J Clin. Nov-Dec 2013;63(6):374-94. doi: 10.3322/caac.21195. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Abstract

Thyroid cancer exists in several forms. Differentiated thyroid cancers include those with papillary and follicular histologies. These tumors exist along a spectrum of differentiation, and their incidence continues to climb. A number of advances in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers now exist. These include molecular diagnostics and more advanced strategies for risk stratification. Medullary cancer arises from the parafollicular cells and not the follicular cells. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment differs from those of differentiated thyroid tumors. Genetic testing and newer adjuvant therapies have changed the diagnosis and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. This review will focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, workup, and treatment of both differentiated and medullary thyroid cancers, focusing specifically on newer developments in the field.

Keywords: diagnosis; epidemiology; follicular thyroid cancer; medullary thyroid cancer; papillary thyroid cancer; thyroid cancer; treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Genetic Testing
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Risk Assessment
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy*