Iodine and gadolinium-based contrast induced nephropathy is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. It is essentially observed in patients with defined risk factors and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The prevention of contrast induced nephropathy consists in volume expansion through intravenous sodium chloride 0.9% or sodium bicarbonate 1.4%. Comparative randomized controlled trials appear to show a benefit in favor of sodium bicarbonate over saline fluids. According to last evidence, N-acetylcysteine does not provide additional benefit over intravenous fluids.