Background: It is estimated that 37% of the U.S. population is obese. It is unknown how obesity influences the operative and survival outcomes of cytoreductive surgery (CRS)/hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) procedures.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 1,000 procedures was performed. Type of malignancy, performance status, resection status, hospital and intensive care unit stay, comorbidities, morbidity, mortality, and survival were reviewed.
Results: A total of 246 patients with body mass index (BMI) of >30 kg/m(2) underwent 272 CRS/HIPEC procedures. Ninety-five (38.6%) were severely obese (BMI > 35 kg/m(2)). A total of 135 (49.6%) procedures were performed for appendiceal and 60 (22.1%) for colon cancer. Median follow-up was 52 months. Both major and minor morbidity were similar for obese and non-obese patients. The 30-day mortality rates for obese and non-obese patients were 1.5 and 2.5%, respectively. Median intensive care unit and hospital stay were 1 and 9 days, regardless of BMI. The 30-day readmission rate was similar between obese and non-obese patients (24.8 vs. 19.4%, p = 0.11). Median survival for low-grade appendiceal cancer (LGA) was 76 months for obese patients and 107 months for non-obese patients (p = 0.32). Survival was worse for severely obese patients (median survival 54 months) versus non-obese patients with LGA (p = 0.04). Survival was similar for obese and non-obese patients with peritoneal surface disease (PSD) from colon cancer or high-grade appendiceal cancer.
Conclusions: Obesity does not influence postoperative morbidity or mortality of patients with PSD, regardless of primary tumor. Severe obesity is associated with decreased long-term survival only in patients with LGA primary disease; however, application of CRS/HIPEC still offers meaningful prolongation of life. Obesity should not be considered a contraindication for CRS/HIPEC procedures.