While bisphenol S (BPS) has been frequently detected both in environment and biota, limited information is available on their effects of endocrine system. In the present study, adult zebrafish pairs were exposed to 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/L of BPS for 21 d, and the effects on reproduction, sex steroid hormones, and transcription of the genes belonging to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis were investigated. The adverse effects on performances of F1 generation were further examined with or without subsequent exposure to BPS. Egg production and the gonadosomatic index in female fish were significantly decreased at ≥0.5 μg/L BPS. Plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol were significantly increased in both male and female fish. In male fish, however, significant decreases of testosterone concentration were observed along with up-regulation of cyp19a and down-regulation of cyp17 and 17βhsd transcripts. Parental exposure to BPS resulted in delayed and lesser rates of hatching even when they were hatched in clean water. Continuous BPS exposure in the F1 embryos resulted in worse hatchability and increased malformation rates compared to those without BPS exposure. Our observations showed that exposure to low level BPS could affect the feedback regulatory circuits of HPG axis and impair the development of offspring.