Purpose: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of myopia-related retinal changes in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with high myopia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study on Hong Kong Chinese teenage subjects with high myopia was conducted between January 2005 and June 2009. Subjects were recruited via newspaper advertisements, invitation letters to schools, leaflets and posters. Data collected included history related to myopia progression and retinal characteristics.
Results: In total, 120 subjects (61 boys and 59 girls) were recruited. The mean age was 14.8 ± 1.6 years (range: 12-18 years). The mean SER of the eyes was -8.41 ± 1.60 D. Ninety four of the 120 adolescents were found to have a retinal change of which 0.8% were sight-threatening, 2.5% were posterior pole changes, and 61.7% were peripheral retinal changes. The five most frequent retinal changes found were optic nerve crescents (52.5%), white-without-pressure (51.7%), lattice degeneration (5.8%), microcystoid degeneration (5%) and pigmentary degeneration (4.2%). After adjusting for myopia over -8 D, age, gender, duration of myopia, family retinal history and intraocular pressure (IOP), binary logistic regressions showed that an axial length longer than 26.5 mm was a significant risk factor for peripheral retinal changes, optic nerve crescents and white-without-pressure.
Conclusions: Peripheral retinal degenerative changes and optic nerve crescent were found in a significant proportion of high myopic teenage subjects. There is increased risk of retinal changes in eyes with an axial length >26.5 mm in 12-18 year-olds.
Keywords: Chinese; myopia; prevalence; retinal changes.
© 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.