Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the primary enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), an essential biopolymer that is synthesized by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) in the cell. By regulating the hydrolytic arm of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, PARG participates in a number of biological processes, including the repair of DNA damage, chromatin dynamics, transcriptional regulation, and cell death. Collectively, the research investigating the roles of PARG in the cell has identified the importance of PARG and its value as a therapeutic target. However, the biological role of PARG remains less understood than the role of PAR synthesis by the PARPs. Further complicating the study of PARG is the existence of multiple PARG isoforms in the cell, the lack of optimal PARG inhibitors, and the lack of viable PARG-null animals. This review will present our current knowledge of PARG, with a focus on its roles in DNA-damage repair and cell death.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.