Cryopreservation induces macrophage colony stimulating factor from human periodontal ligament cells in vitro

Cryobiology. 2013 Oct;67(2):156-62. doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2013.06.006. Epub 2013 Jun 25.


Cryopreservation is used to protect vital periodontal ligaments during the transplantation of teeth. We investigated which gene products implicated in root resorption are upregulated in human periodontal ligament cells by cryopreservation, and whether cryopreservation affects the expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) in human periodontal ligament cells. We used customized microarrays to compare gene expression in human periodontal ligament cells cultured from teeth immediately after extraction and from cryopreserved teeth. Based on the result of these assays, we examined M-CSF expression in periodontal ligament cells from the immediately extracted tooth and cryopreserved teeth by real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence. We also investigated whether human bone marrow cells differentiate into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive osteoclasts when stimulated with RANKL (Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κ B Ligand) together with any secreted M-CSF present in the supernatants of the periodontal ligament cells cultured from the various groups of teeth. M-CSF was twofold higher in the periodontal ligament cells from the rapid freezing teeth than in those from the immediately extracted group (p < 0.05). Cryopreservation increased M-CSF expression in the periodontal ligament cells when analyzed by real time PCR, ELISA, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence (p < 0.05). TRAP positive osteoclasts were formed in response to RANKL and the secreted M-CSF present in the supernatants of all the experimental groups except negative control. These results demonstrate that cryopreservation promotes the production of M-CSF, which plays an important role in root resorption by periodontal ligament cells.

Keywords: ELISA; Freezing; Macrophage colony-stimulating factor; Microarray analysis; Osteoclast; Periodontal ligament cells; Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; Root resorption; Western blotting.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bone Marrow Cells / cytology
  • Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cryopreservation*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics*
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism
  • Osteoclasts / cytology
  • Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • Periodontal Ligament / cytology*
  • Periodontal Ligament / metabolism
  • RANK Ligand / metabolism
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Up-Regulation


  • RANK Ligand
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor