In the 25 years since the first TIPS intervention has been performed, technical standards, indications, and contraindications have been set up. The previous considerable problem of shunt failure by thrombosis or intimal proliferation in the stent or in the draining hepatic vein has been reduced considerably by the availability of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents resulting in reduced rebleeding and improved survival. Unfortunately, most clinical studies have been performed prior to the release of the covered stent and, therefore, do not represent the present state of the art. In spite of this, TIPS has gained increasing acceptance in the treatment of the various complications of portal hypertension and vascular diseases of the liver.
Keywords: Ascites; Budd-Chiari syndrome; Hepatorenal syndrome; Hydrothorax; Portal hypertension; Portal vein thrombosis; TIPS; Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; Variceal bleeding.
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