The evaluation and prediction of impact forces during landings

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990 Jun;22(3):370-7.


The investigation of impact force attenuation during landings may help identify performance strategies. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of height (three), distance (three), and technique (three) on impact forces during landings. Three male volunteer subjects were filmed while performing three right foot landings onto a force platform for each combination of height, distance, and technique for a total of 81 trials per subject. Between- and within-subject three-way ANOVAs and three regression models (mechanical, biomechanical, refined biomechanical) were computed on the dependent variables of first (F1) and second (F2) maximum vertical force. Results of the between-subject ANOVAs indicated significant (P less than 0.05) height, distance, and technique main effects for F1 and a height x technique interaction for F2. The within-subject ANOVA results identified unique models for each of the three subjects. The biomechanical regression model exhibited the best predictions of F1 and F2 for S1 (81.0 and 72.0% explained variance, respectively), while the refined biomechanical model accounted for 83.4, 81.3, 80.9, and 88.0% of the F1 and F2 variances for S2 and S3, respectively. In conclusion, the within-subject results identified unique individual landing strategies that were masked by the group analyses suggesting that caution be exercised in using between-subject analysis techniques.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Body Weight
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Movement / physiology*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Running*
  • Stress, Mechanical