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Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Maize

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Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Maize

Xiangpei Kong et al. BMC Genomics.

Abstract

Background: Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been shown to play important roles in various physiological processes, including plant growth and development, abiotic and biotic stress responses and plant hormone signaling in plants.

Results: In this study, we performed a bioinformatics analysis of the entire maize genome and identified 40 CDPK genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 40 ZmCPKs can be divided into four groups. Most maize CDPK genes exhibited different expression levels in different tissues and developmental stages. Twelve CDPK genes were selected to respond to various stimuli, including salt, drought and cold, as well as ABA and H2O2. Expression analyses suggested that maize CDPK genes are important components of maize development and multiple transduction pathways.

Conclusion: Here, we present a genome-wide analysis of the CDPK gene family in maize for the first time, and this genomic analysis of maize CDPK genes provides the first step towards a functional study of this gene family in maize.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Phylogenetic tree of CDPKs from maize, rice and Arabidopsis. Neighbor-joining tree was created using MEGA5.0 program with 1,000 bootstrap using full length sequences of 40 maize, 29 rice, and 34 Arabidopsis CDPK proteins. Four groups were labeled as I, II, III, and IV. Red boxes, maize-rice orthologs; blue boxes, duplicated genes.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Exonintron structures of maize CDPK genes. Boxes, exons; green boxes, open reading frames; lines, introns. Four groups were labeled as I, II, III, and IV.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Chromosomal distributions of CDPK genes in the maize genome. The chromosome number is indicated at the top of each chromosome representation.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Expression profiles of maize CDPK genes across different tissues and developmental stages. The scale representing the relative signal intensity values is shown above. DAP: Days After Pollination; DAS: Days After Sowing.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Tissue-specific gene expressions of 12 CDPK genes in various tissues by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The scale representing the relative signal intensity values is shown above. Hierarchical clustering was played in data analysis. R: roots; S: stems; L: leaves.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Expression analysis of 12 CDPK genes in roots of maize exposed to 250 mM NaCl for various times as indicated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The scale representing the relative signal intensity values is shown above. Hierarchical clustering was played in data analysis.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Expression analysis of 12 CDPK genes in roots of maize exposed to 20% PEG for various times as indicated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The scale representing the relative signal intensity values is shown above. Hierarchical clustering was played in data analysis.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Expression analysis of 12 CDPK genes in roots of maize exposed to 4°C for various times as indicated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The scale representing the relative signal intensity values is shown above. Hierarchical clustering was played in data analysis.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Expression analysis of 12 CDPK genes in roots of maize exposed to 100 μM ABA for various times as indicated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The scale representing the relative signal intensity values is shown above. Hierarchical clustering was played in data analysis.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Expression analysis of 12 CDPK genes in roots of maize exposed to10 mM H2O2 for various times as indicated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The scale representing the relative signal intensity values is shown above. Hierarchical clustering was played in data analysis.

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