Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems

Monogr Oral Sci. 2013;23:15-26. doi: 10.1159/000350458. Epub 2013 Jun 28.


Caries develops when the equilibrium between de- and remineralization is unbalanced favoring demineralization. De- and remineralization occur depending on the degree of saturation of the interstitial fluids with respect to the tooth mineral. This equilibrium is positively influenced when fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions are added favoring remineralization. In addition, when fluoride is present, it will be incorporated into the newly formed mineral which is then less soluble. Toothpastes may contain fluoride and calcium ions separately or together in various compounds (remineralization systems) and may therefore reduce demineralization and promote remineralization. Formulating all these compounds in one paste may be challenging due to possible premature calcium-fluoride interactions and the low solubility of CaF2. There is a large amount of clinical evidence supporting the potent caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpastes indisputably. The amount of clinical evidence of the effectiveness of the other remineralization systems is far less convincing. Evidence is lacking for head to head comparisons of the various remineralization systems.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Calcium / therapeutic use
  • Calcium Fluoride / chemistry
  • Cariostatic Agents / chemistry
  • Cariostatic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Fluorides / chemistry
  • Fluorides / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Phosphates / therapeutic use
  • Tooth Demineralization / prevention & control
  • Tooth Remineralization / methods*
  • Toothpastes / chemistry
  • Toothpastes / therapeutic use*


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Phosphates
  • Toothpastes
  • Calcium Fluoride
  • Fluorides
  • Calcium