SGTB (Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing, β) plays a critical role in protein-protein interactions. The interaction between SGTB and heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70)/heat shock protein (Hsp70) has aroused much attention in recent years. The present study was designed to elucidate dynamic changes in SGTB expression and distribution in the cerebral cortex in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation rat model. It was found that SGTB expression was increased significantly in apoptotic neurons after LPS injection. The result of our in vitro study suggested that SGTB up-regulation might be associated with neuronal apoptosis after H2O2 challenge. In addition, silencing of SGTB in cultured PC12 (Pheochromocytoma) by siRNA indicated that SGTB was required for neuronal apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Our finding about the cellular signal pathway may provide a new strategy against neuronal apoptosis in neuroinflammation in CNS.