Excessive cicatrisation or epidural fibrosis in the operative field is an inappropriate event occasionally occurring after neurosurgical procedures (i.e., spine procedures and craniotomies). This excessive process may disturb the postoperative course and render reoperations more difficult and risky. The literature describes this phenomenon as accompanying up to 20% of neurosurgical procedures. The scar tissue that forms postoperatively adheres to the dura mater, penetrates into the spinal canal and can cause narrowing symptoms, neurological deficits and pain. The incidence and spread of this excessive scar or epidural fibrosis can be prevented through the modification of the surgical technique by incorporating endoscopic or microscopic access to minimize the operative field and the use of isolating substances (autogenous or heterogeneous) administered intraoperatively. The aim of this experimental study was to morphologically assess the cicatrization process, adhesion and to prevent excessive scar formation with the local use of membranes manufactured by an electrospinning process (nanotechnology). We also investigated whether the biodegradable nanofibrous net triggers or modifies the immunological response or the local inflammatory process. Micro-nanofibrous membranes were produced by the electrospinning process. A biodegradable, medically certified copolymer poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) was used as the electrospun material. An experimental rat model was used in this study. Experimental and control groups were formed with specified follow-up times of 4, 14 and 30 days. During the operation, a two-level laminectomy in the thoracic segment was performed. The operative field was divided into two regions. Isolating material was used on the dura mater and surface of the spinal cord in the area where the laminectomy was performed. The material was analysed with the use of light and electron microscopy. Local cicatrisation can be modified using nanomaterials. Scar formation and epidural fibrosis can be limited and modified locally. No local inflammation process was observed. Initial observations indicate the potential for the effective use of materials obtained in the electrospinning process to prevent cicatrization.