CABOTO, a high-gradient linac for hadrontherapy

J Radiat Res. 2013 Jul;54 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):i155-61. doi: 10.1093/jrr/rrt053.


The field of hadrontherapy has grown rapidly in recent years. At present the therapeutic beam is provided by a cyclotron or a synchrotron, but neither cyclotrons nor synchrotrons present the best performances for hadrontherapy. The new generation of accelerators for hadrontherapy should allow fast active energy modulation and have a high repetition rate, so that moving organs can be appropriately treated in a reasonable time. In addition, a reduction of the dimensions and cost of the accelerators for hadrontherapy would make the acquisition and operation of a hadrontherapy facility more affordable, which would translate into great benefits for the potential hadrontherapy patients. The 'cyclinac', an accelerator concept that combines a cyclotron with a high-frequency linear accelerator (linac), is a fast-cycling machine specifically conceived to allow for fast active energy modulation. The present paper focuses on CABOTO (CArbon BOoster for Therapy in Oncology), a compact, efficient high-frequency linac that can accelerate C(6+) ions and H2 molecules from 150-410 MeV/u in ∼24 m. The paper presents the latest design of CABOTO and discusses its performances.

Keywords: carbon ion therapy; cyclinac; hadrontherapy; high-gradient linac; multipainting.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carbon
  • Cyclotrons
  • Equipment Design
  • Heavy Ion Radiotherapy / instrumentation*
  • Heavy Ion Radiotherapy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Ions
  • Particle Accelerators
  • Proton Therapy / instrumentation*
  • Proton Therapy / methods*
  • Synchrotrons


  • Ions
  • Carbon