Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) and smoking-related morbidity disproportionately burdens African American (AA) men. Smoking is associated with high-grade PCa and incidence, but few studies have focused on AA men. This study aims to determine the effect of tobacco-use on odds of PCa and of high-grade PCa in a population of predominantly AA men.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study evaluating smoking and PCa status in men with incident PCa and screened healthy controls. Altogether, 1,085 men (527 cases and 558 controls), age ≥ 40 years were enrolled through outpatient urology clinics in two US cities from 2001 to 2012. Validated questionnaires were used to gather clinical and socioeconomic data.
Results: The cases and controls were predominantly AA (79.9% and 71.3%, respectively, P = 0.01). AA men smoked more frequently (53.4% vs. 47.9%, P < 0.001) and quit less frequently than European American (EA) men (31.5% vs. 40.4%, P = 0.01). AA heavy smokers had increased odds of PCa diagnosis (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.09, 6.10) and high-grade cancer (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.03, 3.48) relative to never smokers and light smokers. Among AAs, heavy smokers had lower odds of NCCN low PCa recurrence risk stratification. AA former smokers had a trend for increased odds of high-grade cancer compared to never smokers. The associations between smokings, cancer diagnosis and cancer grade did not reach statistical significance in EA men.
Conclusion: We found ethnic differences in smoking behavior. Heavy smoking is associated with increased odds of PCa and of higher Gleason grade in AA men.
Keywords: African American; cancer disparities; prostate cancer; smoking.
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