The evaluation of modified foot orthosis on muscle activity and kinetic in a subject with flexible flat foot : single case study

Prosthet Orthot Int. 2014 Apr;38(2):160-6. doi: 10.1177/0309364613492170. Epub 2013 Jul 3.


Background: Due to blocking of pronation/dorsiflexion in flexible flat foot and restriction of these movements in using the University of California Berkeley Laboratory orthosis, provided pressures in sole by the orthosis were increased. Therefore, this article describes the evaluation of modified foot orthosis with flexible structure in the management of individuals with flexible flat foot. CASE DESCRIPTION AND METHOD: The patient was a 21-year-old male who had symptomatic flat foot. The modified foot orthosis included movable surface and the outside structure. The modified foot orthosis was evaluated by standing foot X-ray, comfort rate, electromyography of leg muscle and vertical ground reaction force during walking.

Findings and outcomes: The modified foot orthosis improved the foot alignment and decreased the symptoms of flat foot with more comfort. Subtalar position by sub-maximum supination had higher position than neutral in sagittal plane. It may increase the muscle activity of peroneus longus by 7% compared to barefoot, and there was a decrease of 11% ground reaction force in mid stance.

Conclusion: The result of this single case evaluation only proposed the feasibility of this modified insole as the orthotic treatment in flexible flat foot. Clinical relevance The modified foot orthosis, which is mobile in the midfoot, is an orthosis for walking and standing in subjects with flexible flat foot.

Keywords: Flexible flat foot; foot orthosis; orthotic management.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Electromyography
  • Flatfoot / diagnostic imaging
  • Flatfoot / physiopathology*
  • Flatfoot / rehabilitation*
  • Foot Orthoses*
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Radiography
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Walking / physiology
  • Young Adult