Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases

Eur Heart J. 2013 Sep;34(33):2636-48, 2648a-2648d. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht210. Epub 2013 Jul 3.


In this position statement of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases an expert consensus group reviews the current knowledge on clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis, and proposes new diagnostic criteria for clinically suspected myocarditis and its distinct biopsy-proven pathogenetic forms. The aims are to bridge the gap between clinical and tissue-based diagnosis, to improve management and provide a common reference point for future registries and multicentre randomised controlled trials of aetiology-driven treatment in inflammatory heart muscle disease.

Keywords: Cardiomyopathy; Diagnosis; Myocarditis; Therapy.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biopsy / methods
  • Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Long-Term Care / methods
  • Myocarditis / diagnosis*
  • Myocarditis / etiology
  • Myocarditis / therapy
  • Referral and Consultation


  • Biomarkers
  • Immunosuppressive Agents