Budding yeast ATM/ATR control meiotic double-strand break (DSB) levels by down-regulating Rec114, an essential component of the DSB-machinery

PLoS Genet. 2013 Jun;9(6):e1003545. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003545. Epub 2013 Jun 27.

Abstract

An essential feature of meiosis is Spo11 catalysis of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Evidence suggests that the number of DSBs generated per meiosis is genetically determined and that this ability to maintain a pre-determined DSB level, or "DSB homeostasis", might be a property of the meiotic program. Here, we present direct evidence that Rec114, an evolutionarily conserved essential component of the meiotic DSB-machinery, interacts with DSB hotspot DNA, and that Tel1 and Mec1, the budding yeast ATM and ATR, respectively, down-regulate Rec114 upon meiotic DSB formation through phosphorylation. Mimicking constitutive phosphorylation reduces the interaction between Rec114 and DSB hotspot DNA, resulting in a reduction and/or delay in DSB formation. Conversely, a non-phosphorylatable rec114 allele confers a genome-wide increase in both DSB levels and in the interaction between Rec114 and the DSB hotspot DNA. These observations strongly suggest that Tel1 and/or Mec1 phosphorylation of Rec114 following Spo11 catalysis down-regulates DSB formation by limiting the interaction between Rec114 and DSB hotspots. We also present evidence that Ndt80, a meiosis specific transcription factor, contributes to Rec114 degradation, consistent with its requirement for complete cessation of DSB formation. Loss of Rec114 foci from chromatin is associated with homolog synapsis but independent of Ndt80 or Tel1/Mec1 phosphorylation. Taken together, we present evidence for three independent ways of regulating Rec114 activity, which likely contribute to meiotic DSBs-homeostasis in maintaining genetically determined levels of breaks.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromatin
  • DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Down-Regulation
  • Endodeoxyribonucleases / genetics
  • Endodeoxyribonucleases / metabolism
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics*
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Meiosis*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Recombinases / genetics*
  • Recombinases / metabolism
  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism
  • Synaptonemal Complex / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism

Substances

  • Chromatin
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • NDT80 protein, S cerevisiae
  • REC114 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Recombinases
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • MEC1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • TEL1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Endodeoxyribonucleases
  • meiotic recombination protein SPO11