Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess clopidogrel resistance and whether "intensified" antiplatelet therapy guided by platelet inhibition tests during neuroendovascular procedures would reduce ischemic complications.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, who underwent neuroendovascular (NV) procedures and had P2Y12 platelet function testing from October 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010. The primary end-point was to determine P2Y12 resistance to antiplatelet therapy in patients who underwent NV procedures. Secondary objectives included incidence of hemorrhagic and ischemic events and a correlation between resistance and genetic CYP2C19 testing.
Results: 160 patients underwent P2Y12 platelet function tests. Eighty-one patients (81/160, 50.6%) met inclusion criteria. Platelet function tests identified 64 patients (79%) as non-resistant (≥20% P2Y12 inhibition) and 17 (21%) as resistant (<20% inhibition) after initial clopidogrel loading. There was an increased rate of death when a complication occurred in the resistant group by 30 day (17% versus 3%; p=0.059) and 90 day follow-up (23% versus 4%; p=0.032). There was no significant association found between complication and loading dose (p=0.0721).
Conclusions: 21% of patients undergoing NV procedures were resistant to clopidogrel. Intensifying antiplatelet therapy to achieve ≥20% inhibition on platelet function testing did not result in higher numbers of ischemic or hemorrhagic events, but there was a trend toward more death in the resistant group by 30 and 90 days of those experiencing complication(s).
Author justifications: Jerah D. Nordeen, Pharm.D.: Primary author Alden V. Patel, Pharm.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Robert M. Darracott, Pharm.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Gretchen S. Johns, M.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Philipp Taussky, M.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Rabih G. Tawk, M.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design David A. Miller, M.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design William D. Freeman, M.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Ricardo A. Hanel, MD, PhD: Contributor of professional content, study design.
List of abbreviations: (NV)neuroendovascular(CYP)cytochrome P-450(PPI)proton pump inhibitors(PCI)percutaneous coronary intervention.
List of commercial products: Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) (Bayer Corp, Morristown, NJ, USA) Clopidogrel (Plavix®) (Bristol Myers Squibb/Sanofi Pharmaceuticals, Princeton, NJ, USA) VerifyNow® (Accumetrics Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) Ticlopidine (Ticlid®) (Roche Laboratories, Basel, Switzerland) Prasugrel (Effient®) (Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, IN, USA) Eptifibatide (Integrilin®) (Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA) Abciximab (Reopro®) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Titusville, NJ, USA) Tirofiban (Aggrastat®) (MGI Pharma, Inc., Bloomington, MN, USA) Pantoprazole (Protonix®) (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA) Omeprazole (Prilosec®) (Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Mason, OH, USA) Famotidine (Pepcid®) (McNeil Consumer & Specialty Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA, USA) Ticagrelor (Brilinta®) (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, NC, USA).
Keywords: hemorrhage; platelets; stent; stroke; subarachnoid.