Reproductive experience does not persistently alter prefrontal cortical-dependent learning but does alter strategy use dependent on estrous phase

Horm Behav. 2013 Aug;64(3):439-47. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.06.005. Epub 2013 Jul 1.


Reproductive experiences in females comprise substantial hormonal and experiential changes and can exert long lasting changes in cognitive function, stress physiology, and brain plasticity. The goal of this research was to determine whether prior reproductive experience could alter a prefrontal-cortical dependent form of learning (strategy set shifting) in an operant box. In this study, female Sprague-Dawley rats were mated and mothered once or twice to produce either primiparous or biparous dams, respectively. Age-matched nulliparous controls (reproductively-naïve females with no exposure to pup cues) were also used. Maternal behaviors were also assessed to determine whether these factors would predict cognitive flexibility. For strategy set shifting, rats were trained in a visual-cue discrimination task on the first day and on the following day, were required to switch to a response strategy to obtain a reward. We also investigated a simpler form of behavioral flexibility (reversal learning) in which rats were trained to press a lever on one side of the box the first day, and on the following day, were required to press the opposite lever to obtain a reward. Estrous phase was determined daily after testing. Neither parity nor estrous phase altered total errors or trials to reach criterion in either the set-shifting or reversal-learning tasks, suggesting that PFC-dependent cognitive performance remains largely stable after 1 or 2 reproductive experiences. However, parity and estrous phase interacted to alter the frequency of particular error types, with biparous rats in estrus committing more perseverative but fewer regressive errors during the set-shifting task. This suggests that parity and estrous phase interfere with the ability to disengage from a previously used, but no longer relevant strategy. These data also suggest that parity alters the behavioral sensitivity to ovarian hormones without changing overall performance.

Keywords: Behavioral flexibility; Estrogens; Estrus; Maternal care; Mothering; Ovarian hormones; Parity; Prefrontal cortex.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / physiology
  • Cues
  • Estrous Cycle / physiology*
  • Female
  • Male
  • Maternal Behavior / physiology
  • Maze Learning / physiology*
  • Parity
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Reproduction / physiology*
  • Reversal Learning / physiology