Caffeine gum minimizes sleep inertia

Percept Mot Skills. 2013 Feb;116(1):280-93. doi: 10.2466/29.22.25.PMS.116.1.280-293.


Naps are an effective strategy for maintaining alertness and cognitive performance; however, upon abrupt wakening from naps, sleep inertia (temporary performance degradation) may ensue. In the present study, attenuation of post-nap sleep inertia was attempted by administration of caffeine gum. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 15 healthy, non-smoking adults were awakened at 1 hr. and again at 6 hr. after lights out (0100 and 0600, respectively) and were immediately administered a gum pellet containing 100 mg of caffeine or placebo. A 5-min. psychomotor vigilance task was administered at 0 min., 6 min., 12 min., and 18 min. post-awakening. At 0100, response speed with caffeine was significantly better at 12 min. and 18 min. post-awakening compared to placebo; at 0600, caffeine's effects were evident at 18 min. post-awakening. Caffeinated gum is a viable means of rapidly attenuating sleep inertia, suggesting that the adenosine receptor system is involved in sleep maintenance.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Caffeine / administration & dosage
  • Caffeine / pharmacology*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Stages / drug effects
  • Sleep Stages / physiology
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Wakefulness / drug effects*
  • Young Adult


  • Caffeine