Nosocomial pneumonia: lessons learned

Crit Care Clin. 2013 Jul;29(3):521-46. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2013.03.007. Epub 2013 Apr 30.


Nosocomial pneumonia remains a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection, imposing substantial economic burden on the health care system worldwide. Various preventive strategies have been increasingly used to prevent the development of pneumonia. It is now recognized that patients with health care-associated pneumonia are a heterogeneous population and that not all are at risk for infection with nosocomial pneumonia pathogens, with some being infected with the same organisms as in community-acquired pneumonia. This review discusses the risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia, controversies in its diagnosis, and approaches to the treatment and prevention of nosocomial and health care-associated pneumonia.

Keywords: Antimicrobial treatment; Health care–associated pneumonia; Hospital-acquired pneumonia; Nosocomial pneumonia; Prevention; Ventilator-associated complications; Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Distribution
  • Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross Infection* / drug therapy
  • Cross Infection* / microbiology
  • Cross Infection* / mortality
  • Cross Infection* / prevention & control
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple*
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Pneumonia / drug therapy
  • Pneumonia / microbiology
  • Pneumonia / mortality
  • Pneumonia / prevention & control
  • Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated* / drug therapy
  • Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated* / microbiology
  • Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated* / mortality
  • Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated* / prevention & control
  • Risk Factors
  • Ventilators, Mechanical / adverse effects*
  • Ventilators, Mechanical / microbiology


  • Anti-Infective Agents