Quantitative in situ magnetization reversal studies in Lorentz microscopy and electron holography

Ultramicroscopy. 2013 Nov:134:144-54. doi: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2013.06.003. Epub 2013 Jun 14.


A generalized procedure for the in situ application of magnetic fields by means of the excitation of the objective lens for magnetic imaging experiments in Lorentz microscopy and electron holography is quantitatively described. A protocol for applying magnetic fields with arbitrary in-plane magnitude and orientation is presented, and a freeware script for Digital Micrograph(™) is provided to assist the operation of the microscope. Moreover, a method to accurately reconstruct hysteresis loops is detailed. We show that the out-of-plane component of the magnetic field cannot be always neglected when performing quantitative measurements of the local magnetization. Several examples are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and functionality of the methods.

Keywords: Electron holography; In situ magnetic field; Lorentz microscopy; Magnetic materials; Transmission electron microscopy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Electrons
  • Holography / methods*
  • Lenses
  • Magnetic Fields
  • Microscopy, Electron / methods*