Pulmonary disease is common in patients with heart failure, through shared risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms. Adverse pulmonary vascular remodelling and chronic systemic inflammation characterize both diseases. Concurrent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The cornerstones of therapy are beta-blockers and beta-agonists, whose pharmacological properties are diametrically opposed. Each disease is implicated in exacerbations of the other condition, greatly increasing hospitalizations and associated health care costs. Such multimorbidity is a key challenge for health-care systems oriented towards the treatment of individual diseases. Early identification and treatment of cardiopulmonary disease may alleviate this burden. However, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies require further validation in patients with both conditions.
Keywords: Adrenergic beta-agonists; Adrenergic beta-antagonists; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Heart failure.