Optimizing fluorescent protein choice for transgenic embryonic medaka models

Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013 Oct;32(10):2396-401. doi: 10.1002/etc.2324. Epub 2013 Aug 23.


Early-life-stage transgenic medaka are recognized as a pertinent model by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and are noncompliant with the European definition of a laboratory animal. However, autofluorescence confounds readout of fluorescent biomarkers. The authors determined the fluorescence emission spectrum of different embryonic stages of medaka submitted to a range of excitation wavelengths. This allows selection of high signal-to-noise ratio fluorescent proteins and combining multiple biomarkers within a single embryo.

Keywords: Autofluorescence; Embryo; Fluorescent protein; Medaka.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Egg Proteins / genetics
  • Fluorescence
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism*
  • Methylene Blue
  • Oryzias / embryology*
  • Oryzias / genetics
  • Oryzias / metabolism*
  • Protein Precursors / genetics
  • Signal-To-Noise Ratio


  • Biomarkers
  • Egg Proteins
  • Protein Precursors
  • choriogenin H
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Methylene Blue