Context: Cyclophosphamide is used for renal and major extrarenal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is associated with a risk of premature ovarian failure. There are no data available about the relation between anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) serum levels and the probability of subsequent pregnancy in SLE patients.
Objective: We analyzed AMH levels and the probability of pregnancy in SLE women exposed to cyclophosphamide.
Design and setting: We conducted a matched cohort study in referral centers for SLE.
Patients: Fifty-six cyclophosphamide-exposed SLE women younger than 40 years of age and 56 control SLE women matched for age within 6 months participated in the study.
Main outcome measures: AMH was measured in samples from the PLUS study (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00413361). All patients were interviewed in May 2012 regarding their obstetric status.
Results: The mean age ± SD of the 112 patients was 31.6 ± 5.8 years. The mean AMH level was low (1.21 ± 1.01 ng/mL) and was significantly lower in patients exposed to cyclophosphamide (P = .03) and in patients older than 30 years (P = .02). During a median follow-up (interval between sampling and the interview) period of 4.2 (range, 2.5-4.8) years, 38 patients sought to become pregnant, and 32 (84.2%) succeeded. In the univariate analysis, the risk of failure was associated with cumulative cyclophosphamide dose (P = .007) and older age (P = .02), but not with AMH.
Conclusion: We confirmed that AMH levels are low in SLE patients and decrease significantly with age and cyclophosphamide exposure. Nonetheless, the risk of failure to conceive was low and was predicted by cyclophosphamide exposure and age, but not by AMH levels.