Node of Ranvier disruption as a cause of neurological diseases

ASN Neuro. 2013 Aug 7;5(3):209-19. doi: 10.1042/AN20130025.

Abstract

Dysfunction and/or disruption of nodes of Ranvier are now recognized as key contributors to the pathophysiology of various neurological diseases. One reason is that the excitable nodal axolemma contains a high density of Nav (voltage-gated Na+ channels) that are required for the rapid and efficient saltatory conduction of action potentials. Nodal physiology is disturbed by altered function, localization, and expression of voltage-gated ion channels clustered at nodes and juxtaparanodes, and by disrupted axon-glial interactions at paranodes. This paper reviews recent discoveries in molecular/cellular neuroscience, genetics, immunology, and neurology that highlight the critical roles of nodes of Ranvier in health and disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System / pathology
  • Central Nervous System / pathology
  • Channelopathies / pathology
  • Demyelinating Diseases / pathology
  • Humans
  • Ion Channels / physiology
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Nervous System Diseases / pathology*
  • Peripheral Nervous System / pathology
  • Ranvier's Nodes / pathology*

Substances

  • Ion Channels
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins