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Review
, 12, 232

Bad Air, Amulets and Mosquitoes: 2,000 Years of Changing Perspectives on Malaria

Review

Bad Air, Amulets and Mosquitoes: 2,000 Years of Changing Perspectives on Malaria

Ernst Hempelmann et al. Malar J.

Abstract

For many centuries, scientists have debated the cause and best treatment of the disease now known as malaria. Two theories regarding malaria transmission--that of "bad air" and that of insect vectors--have been widely accepted at different times throughout history. Treatments and cures have varied accordingly over time. This paper traces the evolution of scientific consensus on malaria aetiology, transmission, and treatment from ancient times to the present day.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Sammonicus’ anti-pyretic abracadabra talisman.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Torti Fever tree in the shape of a stylized cinchona plant. (Courtesy The John Carter Brown Library at Brown University).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Linnæus’ listing of the Cinchona genus. (Courtesy Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Frerichs’ drawings of the deposition of pigment in internal organs of intermittens patients. (Courtesy Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preussischer Kulturbesitz).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Laveran’s drawing of malaria parasites.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Ross’ Diary and Notes of Researches on Malaria, Book I, page 107. (Courtesy Archives Service, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Letter from R Koch to G Nuttall.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Golgi’s original microphotograph of a daisy-like malaria blood preparation. (Courtesy Museum for the History of the University of Pavia).
Figure 9
Figure 9
Schaudinn’s drawings showing direct entry of erythrocytes by infective sporozoites in cells numbered 15 a–h. (Courtesy Tropeninstitut Hamburg).

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Cited by 2 PubMed Central articles

References

    1. Hippocrates. On Airs, Waters, and Places. 400 BCE. London: Sydenham Society; 1849. pp. 179–222. (The Internet Classics Archive 1994; Book 2, Part 7. English translation: Adams F. The Genuine Works of Hippocrates).
    1. Sammonicus QS. Liber Medicinalis. C. 210. Chapter 51, verse 944.
    1. Wootton A. Chronicles of Pharmacy, volume 1. London: Macmillan and Co.; 1910. pp. 164–166.
    1. Skemer D. Binding words: Textual amulets in the Middle Ages. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press; 2006. p. 25.
    1. Herodotus. Historie, Book 2 (euterpe), 430 BCE: part 125. English Translation of Same. Macaulay G, London: Macmillan and Co; 1890.
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