Given the excellent survival rate of children and teenagers treated for cancer, careful should be given in order to minimize long-term late effects of treatments and to improve quality of life. In this regard, fertility preservation is particularly important. Age, sex and concomitant therapies have an impact on the level of risk of hypofertility, with a stronger risk for chemotherapeutic regimens including alkylating agents, and gonads or hypothalamo-pituitary axis radiotherapy. Assessment of gonadotoxic impact of treatment strategy and fertility preservation techniques are crucial for limiting late effects. The objective of this literature review is to develop guidance for pediatric oncologists and hematologists relative to fertility preservation methods, in children and teenagers receiving gonadotoxic treatment. Specific follow-up after treatment is also proposed.
Keywords: cancer; children; fertility preservation; guidelines.