Closed-loop fluid resuscitation: robustness against weight and cardiac contractility variations

Anesth Analg. 2013 Nov;117(5):1110-8. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182930050.


Background: Surgical patients present with a wide variety of body sizes and blood volumes, have large differences in baseline volume status, and may exhibit significant differences in cardiac function. Any closed-loop fluid administration system must be robust against these differences. In the current study, we tested the stability and robustness of the closed-loop fluid administration system against the confounders of body size, starting volume status, and cardiac contractility using control engineering methodology.

Methods: Using an independently developed previously published hemodynamic simulation model that includes blood volumes and cardiac contractility, we ran a Monte-Carlo simulation series with variation in starting blood volume and body weight (phase 1, weight 35-100 kg), and starting blood volume and cardiac contractility (phase 2, contractility from 1500 [severe heart failure] to 6000 [hyperdynamic]). The performance of the controller in resuscitating to the target set point was evaluated in terms of milliliters of blood volume error from optimal, with <250 mL of error defined as "successful."

Results: One thousand simulations were run for each of the 2 phases of the study. The phase 1 mean blood volume error ± SD from optimal was 25 ± 59 mL. The phase 2 mean blood volume error from optimal was -60 ± 89 mL. The lower 95% Clopper-Pearson binomial confidence interval for resuscitation to within 250 mL of optimal blood volume for phase 1 and 2 was 99.6% and 97.1%, respectively.

Conclusion: The results indicate that the controller is highly effective in targeting optimal blood and stroke volumes, regardless of weight, contractility or starting blood volume.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesiology / instrumentation*
  • Anesthesiology / methods*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Blood Volume
  • Body Weight
  • Cardiac Output
  • Computer Simulation
  • Feedback
  • Fluid Therapy / instrumentation
  • Fluid Therapy / methods*
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Myocardial Contraction / drug effects*
  • Random Allocation
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Resuscitation / instrumentation
  • Resuscitation / methods*
  • Software