Extraintestinal manifestations and complications in IBD

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Oct;10(10):585-95. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2013.117. Epub 2013 Jul 9.


More than one-third of patients with IBD are affected by extraintestinal manifestations or extraintestinal complications beyond the intestinal manifestation of the disease. The most common manifestations include arthropathies, mucocutaneous and ophthalmological manifestations, as well as conditions affecting the hepatobiliary system, both in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, less frequent manifestations, such as pulmonary or neurological manifestations, should also be considered in patients with IBD. Several extraintestinal manifestations follow the course of the underlying intestinal activity, whereas others are independent from the intestinal inflammation. Extraintestinal complications such as iron-deficiency anaemia and osteoporosis are consequences of the intestinal disease or of disease-specific treatment. As extraintestinal manifestations and complications strongly influence quality of life, and to avoid severe complications, adequate treatment is mandatory in affected patients. We provide a comprehensive overview of different extraintestinal manifestations and complications, including their management, in patients with IBD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biliary Tract Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Biliary Tract Diseases / physiopathology
  • Comorbidity
  • Eye Diseases / epidemiology
  • Eye Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / physiopathology
  • Liver Diseases / epidemiology
  • Liver Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Lung Diseases / epidemiology
  • Lung Diseases / physiopathology
  • Prevalence
  • Rheumatic Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Rheumatic Diseases / physiopathology
  • Skin Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Skin Diseases / physiopathology