Detrimental effect of class-selective histone deacetylase inhibitors during tissue regeneration following hindlimb ischemia

J Biol Chem. 2013 Aug 9;288(32):22915-29. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.484337. Epub 2013 Jul 7.


Histone deacetylase inhibitors (DIs) are promising drugs for the treatment of several pathologies including ischemic and failing heart where they demonstrated efficacy. However, adverse side effects and cardiotoxicity have also been reported. Remarkably, no information is available about the effect of DIs during tissue regeneration following acute peripheral ischemia. In this study, mice made ischemic by femoral artery excision were injected with the DIs MS275 and MC1568, selective for class I and IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. In untreated mice, soon after damage, class IIa HDAC phosphorylation and nuclear export occurred, paralleled by dystrophin and neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) down-regulation and decreased protein phosphatase 2A activity. Between 14 and 21 days after ischemia, dystrophin and nNOS levels recovered, and class IIa HDACs relocalized to the nucleus. In this condition, the MC1568 compound increased the number of newly formed muscle fibers but delayed their terminal differentiation, whereas MS275 abolished the early onset of the regeneration process determining atrophy and fibrosis. The selective DIs had differential effects on the vascular compartment: MC1568 increased arteriogenesis whereas MS275 inhibited it. Capillarogenesis did not change. Chromatin immunoprecipitations revealed that class IIa HDAC complexes bind promoters of proliferation-associated genes and of class I HDAC1 and 2, highlighting a hierarchical control between class II and I HDACs during tissue regeneration. Our findings indicate that class-selective DIs interfere with normal mouse ischemic hindlimb regeneration and suggest that their use could be limited by alteration of the regeneration process in peripheral ischemic tissues.

Keywords: Epigenetics; Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; Ischemia; Muscle Regeneration; Nitric Oxide; Protein Phosphatase 2A.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzamides / adverse effects*
  • Benzamides / pharmacology
  • Dystrophin / metabolism
  • Hindlimb / blood supply*
  • Hindlimb / metabolism
  • Hindlimb / pathology
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / adverse effects*
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Histone Deacetylases / metabolism
  • Hydroxamic Acids / adverse effects*
  • Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology
  • Ischemia* / drug therapy
  • Ischemia* / metabolism
  • Ischemia* / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Muscle, Skeletal* / blood supply
  • Muscle, Skeletal* / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal* / pathology
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I / metabolism
  • Protein Phosphatase 2 / metabolism
  • Pyridines / adverse effects*
  • Pyridines / pharmacology
  • Pyrroles / adverse effects*
  • Pyrroles / pharmacology
  • Regeneration / drug effects*
  • Time Factors


  • Benzamides
  • Dystrophin
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • MC1568
  • Pyridines
  • Pyrroles
  • entinostat
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
  • Nos1 protein, mouse
  • Protein Phosphatase 2
  • Histone Deacetylases