Purpose of review: To review the most recent literature on the management of the orbit under high pressure (the tight orbit) with threatened visual loss.
Recent findings: Definitive management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains unclear, lacking randomized head-to-head treatment option trials. Instead, numerous case series and anecdotal reports show benefit in each of the four treatment modalities currently in use, but a multitude of variables confound cross-study comparison. In contrast, the management of orbital hemorrhage and orbital emphysema is well known. A number of immunomodulatory protocols have recently arisen for the medical suppression of Graves' ophthalmopathy, but when surgical decompression is required, most authors currently favor a combined transconjunctival and endoscopic endonasal approach.
Summary: This article reviews the anatomy, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and intervention of the 'tight orbit' with associated visual loss. Guidelines for the intervention are given.