Warfarin and statins are associated with hematoma volume in primary infratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage

Neurocrit Care. 2014 Oct;21(2):192-9. doi: 10.1007/s12028-013-9839-9.


Background and purpose: Despite extensive studies of supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), limited data are available on determinants of hematoma volume in infratentorial ICH. We therefore aimed to identify predictors of infratentorial ICH volume and to evaluate whether location specificity exists when comparing cerebellar to brainstem ICH.

Methods: We undertook a retrospective analysis of 139 consecutive infratentorial ICH cases (95 cerebellar and 44 brainstem ICH) prospectively enrolled in a single-center study of ICH. ICH volume was measured on the CT scan obtained upon presentation to the Emergency Department using an established computer-assisted method. We used linear regression to identify determinants of log-transformed ICH volume and logistic regression to evaluate their role in surgical evacuation.

Results: Median ICH volumes for all infratentorial, cerebellar, and brainstem ICH were nine [interquartile range (IQR), 3-23], ten (IQR, 3-25), and eight (IQR, 3-19) milliliters, respectively. Thirty-six patients were on warfarin treatment, 31 underwent surgical evacuation, and 65 died within 90 days. Warfarin was associated with an increase in ICH volume of 86 % [β = 0.86, standard error (SE) = 0.29, p = 0.003] and statin treatment with a decrease of 69 % (β = -69, SE = 0.26, p = 0.008). Among cerebellar ICH subjects, those on warfarin were five times more likely to undergo surgical evacuation (OR = 4.80, 95 % confidence interval 1.63-14.16, p = 0.005).

Conclusions: Warfarin exposure increases ICH volume in infratentorial ICH. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the inverse relation observed between statins and ICH volume.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anticoagulants / adverse effects*
  • Brain Stem Hemorrhage, Traumatic / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain Stem Hemorrhage, Traumatic / drug therapy*
  • Brain Stem Hemorrhage, Traumatic / surgery
  • Cerebellar Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebellar Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Cerebellar Diseases / surgery
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / drug therapy*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / surgery
  • Female
  • Hematoma / chemically induced*
  • Hematoma / diagnostic imaging
  • Hematoma / surgery
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Radiography
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Warfarin / adverse effects*


  • Anticoagulants
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Warfarin