Introduction: This study retrospectively evaluated CT-guided thoracic biopsies for diagnostic yield, accuracy and complications.
Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 384 patients (mean age 62.7 years; male/female = 251/133) who underwent 399 CT-guided thoracic biopsies were performed for evaluating diagnostic yield, accuracy and complications. Correlations between patients age, procedure factors (biopsy-needle size, number of passes, lesion-size, lesion-depth and traversed lung-length) and complications such as pneumothorax, haemothorax and haemoptysis were evaluated. A comparison between fine needle aspiration (FNA) group and core ± FNA group for diagnostic yield and complications was also performed.
Results: FNA was performed in 349 patients and core ± FNA in 50 patients. The biopsy samples were adequate in 91.9% and the diagnostic accuracy for malignant lesions was 96.8% with 95.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Pneumothorax (detected on CT) occurred in 139 cases (34.8%) and only 12 (3.0%) required insertion of an intercostals drain. Mild haemoptysis occurred in 13 patients (3.2%) and small haemothoraces in 2 patients. Pneumothorax occurrence was significantly associated with the traversed lung-length (>3mm), lesion-size (≤33 mm) and lesion-depth (≥60mm) (P <0.05). Haemoptysis occurrence was also significantly associated with traversed lunglength (>3mm) and lesion-size (≤33 mm) (P <0.05). There was no significant difference between diagnostic yield and complication rate between FNA and core ± FNA groups.
Conclusion: CT-guided thoracic biopsy is a safe procedure with high diagnostic yield and low risk of significant complications. Traversed lung-length and smaller lesion size are associated with occurrence of pneumothorax and haemoptysis.