Background: The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intensive lifestyle intervention resulted in significant weight loss, reducing the development of diabetes, but needs to be adapted to primary care provider (PCP) practices.
Objectives: To compare a DPP-translation using individual (IC) vs. conference (CC) calls delivered by PCP staff for the outcome of percent weight loss over 2 years.
Design: Randomized clinical trial.
Setting: Five PCP sites.
Participants: Obese patients with metabolic syndrome, without diabetes (IC, n = 129; CC, n = 128).
Intervention: Telephone delivery of the DPP Lifestyle Balance intervention [16-session core curriculum in year 1, 12-session continued telephone contact in year 2 plus telephone coaching sessions (dietitians).
Main measures: Weight (kg), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference.
Baseline data: age = 52 years, BMI = 39 kg/m(2), 75 % female, 85 % non-Hispanic White, 13 % non-Hispanic Black, and 48 % annual incomes <$40,000/year. In the intention-to-treat analyses at year 2, mean percent weight loss was -5.6 % (CC, p < 0.001) and -1.8 % (IC, p = 0.046) and was greater for CC than for IC (p = 0.016). At year 2, mean weight loss was 6.2 kg (CC) and 2.2 kg (IC) (p < 0.001). There was similar weight loss at year 1, but between year 1 and year 2 CC participants continued to lose while IC participants regained. At year 2, 52 % and 43 % (CC) and 29 % and 22 % (IC) of participants lost at least 5 % and 7 % of initial weight. BMI also decreased more for CC than IC (-2.1 kg/m(2) vs. -0.8 kg/m(2) p < 0.001). Waist circumference decreased by 3.1 cm (CC) and 2.4 cm (IC) at year 2. Completers (≥9 of 16 sessions; mean 13.3 sessions) lost significantly more weight than non-completers (mean 4.3 sessions).
Conclusions: PCP staff delivery of the DPP lifestyle intervention by telephone can be effective in achieving weight loss in obese people with metabolic syndrome. Greater weight loss may be attained with a group telephone intervention.