Genetically humanized mouse models of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters and their applications

Xenobiotica. 2014 Jan;44(2):96-108. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2013.815831. Epub 2013 Jul 11.


1. Drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters play important roles in the absorption, metabolism, tissue distribution and excretion of various compounds and their metabolites and thus can significantly affect their efficacy and safety. Furthermore, they can be involved in drug-drug interactions which can result in adverse responses, life-threatening toxicity or impaired efficacy. Significant species differences in the interaction of compounds with drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters have been described. 2. In order to overcome the limitation of animal models in accurately predicting human responses, a large variety of mouse models humanized for drug metabolizing enzymes and to a lesser extent drug transporters have been created. 3. This review summarizes the literature describing these mouse models and their key applications in studying the role of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in drug bioavailability, tissue distribution, clearance and drug-drug interactions as well as in human metabolite testing and risk assessment. 4. Though such humanized mouse models have certain limitations, there is great potential for their use in basic research and for testing and development of new medicines. These limitations and future potentials will be discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Drug Interactions
  • Enzymes / genetics
  • Enzymes / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Inactivation, Metabolic / physiology*
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout* / genetics
  • Mice, Knockout* / metabolism
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Models, Animal
  • Pharmacological Phenomena*
  • Risk Assessment


  • Enzymes
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System