Prognostic and putative predictive biomarkers of gastric cancer for personalized medicine

Diagn Mol Pathol. 2013 Sep;22(3):127-37. doi: 10.1097/PDM.0b013e318284188e.


We investigated various phenotypic and genotypic biomarkers of gastric cancer (GC) testing the following hypotheses: are these biomarkers suitable for the identification of GC subtypes, are they of prognostic significance, and should any of these biomarkers be considered to tailor patient treatment in the future. The study cohort consisted of 482 patients. pTNM-stage was based on surgical pathologic examination. The Laurén and mucin phenotype was assessed. Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus infections were documented. The following biomarkers were determined: BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, and PIK3CA genotype, microsatellite instability, mucin 1, mucin 2, mucin 5, and mucin 6, CD10, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and lysozyme. The histologic phenotype correlated with 10/13 (77%) clinicopathologic patient characteristics and 6/13 (46%) immunohistochemical/molecular biological biomarkers. Inversely, immunohistochemical biomarkers (mucin phenotype, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and lysozyme) were unsuitable for subclassification of GC. It showed too much overlap between the different subtypes. Among the genotypes, only microsatellite instability correlated with tumor type being more prevalent in intestinal and unclassified GCs. Patient survival correlated significantly with 8 (62%) clinicopathologic and 5 (36%) immunohistochemical/molecular biomarkers. Interestingly, in proximal GCs, KRAS mutation was associated with worse prognosis, as was persistent H. pylori infection in unclassified GCs. Mucin 2 (all patients, proximal GCs) and PIK3CA (exon 20; intestinal type GC) prognosticated independently patient survival. The biomarkers examined herein are unsuitable to aid histologic classification of GC. However, several of them show a correlation with either phenotype and/or prognosis and may be considered to tailor patient treatment in the future, such as KRAS, PIK3CA, MSI, and H. pylori status.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers / analysis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry / methods
  • Male
  • Microarray Analysis / methods
  • Middle Aged
  • Pathology / methods*
  • Precision Medicine / methods*
  • Prognosis
  • Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*


  • Biomarkers