Apomorphine-induced emesis in the dog--routes of administration, efficacy and synergism by naloxone

J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1990 Jun;13(2):154-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.1990.tb00763.x.


Apomorphine proved to be more effective as an emetic in dogs after s.c. administration than after i.m. injection with doses of 0.04 and 0.1 mg/kg. This effect is explained by an anti-emetic effect mediated by mu-receptors in the vomiting centre in the brain, which, in contrast to the chemoreceptor trigger zone, is within the blood-brain barrier. A certain delay between the stimulation of D2-receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (causing emesis) and mu-receptors in the vomiting centre (producing anti-emesis) therefore results, leading to a self-limiting emesis. Blockade of the mu-receptors by naloxone increased and prolonged the effect of apomorphine. A relatively narrow range of apomorphine concentrations on s.c. administration is then effective to stimulate the chemoreceptor trigger zone, but can hardly inhibit the vomiting centre, and must therefore be considered the most suitable route for administration of apomorphine.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apomorphine / administration & dosage*
  • Apomorphine / pharmacokinetics
  • Apomorphine / pharmacology
  • Dog Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Dogs
  • Drug Synergism
  • Female
  • Injections, Intramuscular / veterinary
  • Injections, Intravenous / veterinary
  • Injections, Subcutaneous / veterinary
  • Male
  • Naloxone / pharmacology*
  • Vomiting / chemically induced
  • Vomiting / veterinary*


  • Naloxone
  • Apomorphine