Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin versus glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin (CANTATA-SU): 52 week results from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 non-inferiority trial

Lancet. 2013 Sep 14;382(9896):941-50. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60683-2. Epub 2013 Jul 12.

Abstract

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. We compared the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, with glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin.

Methods: We undertook this 52 week, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 3 non-inferiority trial at 157 centres in 19 countries between Aug 28, 2009, and Dec 21, 2011. Patients aged 18-80 years with type 2 diabetes and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7·0-9·5% on stable metformin were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by computer-generated random sequence via an interactive voice or web response system to receive canagliflozin 100 mg or 300 mg, or glimepiride (up-titrated to 6 mg or 8 mg per day) orally once daily. Patients, study investigators, and local sponsor personnel were masked to treatment. The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 52, with a non-inferiority margin of 0·3% for the comparison of each canagliflozin dose with glimepiride. If non-inferiority was shown, we assessed superiority on the basis of an upper bound of the 95% CI for the difference of each canagliflozin dose versus glimepiride of less than 0·0%. Analysis was done in a modified intention-to-treat population, including all randomised patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00968812.

Findings: 1450 of 1452 randomised patients received at least one dose of glimepiride (n=482), canagliflozin 100 mg (n=483), or canagliflozin 300 mg (n=485). For lowering of HbA1c at 52 weeks, canagliflozin 100 mg was non-inferior to glimepiride (least-squares mean difference -0·01% [95% CI -0·11 to 0·09]), and canagliflozin 300 mg was superior to glimepiride (-0·12% [-0·22 to -0·02]). 39 (8%) patients had serious adverse events in the glimepiride group versus 24 (5%) in the canagliflozin 100 mg group and 26 (5%) in the 300 mg group. In the canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg groups versus the glimepiride group, we recorded a greater number of genital mycotic infections (women: 26 [11%] and 34 [14%] vs five [2%]; men: 17 [7%] and 20 [8%] vs three [1%]), urinary tract infections (31 [6%] for both canagliflozin doses vs 22 [5%]), and osmotic diuresis-related events (pollakiuria: 12 [3%] for both doses vs one [<1%]; polyuria: four [<1%] for both doses vs two [<1%]).

Interpretation: Canagliflozin provides greater HbA1c reduction than does glimepiride, and is well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving metformin. These findings support the use of canagliflozin as a viable treatment option for patients who do not achieve sufficient glycaemic control with metformin therapy.

Funding: Janssen Research & Development, LLC.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Canagliflozin
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Glucosides / administration & dosage*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Metformin / therapeutic use
  • Middle Aged
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors*
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds / administration & dosage*
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds / adverse effects
  • Thiophenes / administration & dosage*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Glucosides
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds
  • Thiophenes
  • Canagliflozin
  • glimepiride
  • Metformin

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00968812