FPGA-Accelerated Deformable Image Registration for Improved Target-Delineation During CT-Guided Interventions

IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst. 2007 Jun;1(2):116-27. doi: 10.1109/TBCAS.2007.909023.


Minimally invasive image-guided interventions (IGIs) are time and cost efficient, minimize unintended damage to healthy tissue, and lead to faster patient recovery. With the advent of multislice computed tomography (CT), many IGIs are now being performed under volumetric CT guidance. Registering pre-and intraprocedural images for improved intraprocedural target delineation is a fundamental need in the IGI workflow. Earlier approaches to meet this need primarily employed rigid body approximation, which may not be valid because of nonrigid tissue misalignment between these images. Intensity-based automatic deformable registration is a promising option to correct for this misalignment; however, the long execution times of these algorithms have prevented their use in clinical workflow. This article presents a field-programmable gate array-based architecture for accelerated implementation of mutual information (Ml)-based deformable registration. The reported implementation reduces the execution time of MI-based deformable registration from hours to a few minutes. This work also demonstrates successful registration of abdominal intraprocedural noncontrast CT (iCT) images with preprocedural contrast-enhanced CT (preCT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images using the reported solution. The registration accuracy for this application was evaluated using 5 iCT-preCT and 5 iCT-PET image pairs. The registration accuracy of the hardware implementation is comparable with that achieved using a software implementation and is on the order of a few millimeters. This registration accuracy, coupled with the execution speed and compact implementation of the reported solution, makes it suitable for integration in the IGI-workflow.