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Review
, 18 (7), 8200-29

Advances in Fruit Aroma Volatile Research

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Review

Advances in Fruit Aroma Volatile Research

Muna Ahmed Mohamed El Hadi et al. Molecules.

Abstract

Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.

Figures

Scheme 1
Scheme 1
Linolenic acid-derived flavor molecules.AAT, alcohol acyl CoA transferase; ADH, alcohol dehydrogenase; AER, alkenal oxidoreductase; AOC, allene oxide cyclase; AOS, allene oxide synthase; HPL, hydroperoxide lyase; JMT, jasmonate methyltransferase; LOX, lipoxygenase; OPR, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase; 3Z,2E-EI, 3Z,2E-enal isomerase.
Scheme 2
Scheme 2
Biosynthetic routes for amino acid degradation to volatiles in plants and microorganisms.
Scheme 3
Scheme 3
The biosynthesis pathway of isoprenoids in plant cell. DMAPP, dimethylallyl diphosphate; DXP, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate; DXS, DXP synthase; DXR, DXP reductoisomerase; FPP, farnesyl diphosphate; G3P, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate; GPP, geranyl diphosphate; GGPP, geranyl geranyl diphosphate; HMGR, HMG-CoA reductase; IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate; MEP, methylerythritol phosphate; MVA, mevalonic acid.
Scheme 4
Scheme 4
Carotenoids and their degradation products. 1, 5,6-epoxy-3hydroxy-β-ionone; 2, geranayl acetone (6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one); 3, β-ionone; 4, C14 dialdehyde (4,9-dimethyldodeca-2,4,6,8,10-pentaene-1,12-dial); 5, 3-hydroxy-β-ionone; 6, the cleavage product of 9-cis-neoxanthin on the 9,10 double bond; 7, the cleavage product of 9-cis-neoxanthin on the 9′,10′ double bond; 8, 4,9-dimethyldodeca-4,6,8-trienedial; 9, α-ionone; 10, pseudoionone (6,10-dimethyl-3,5,9-undecatrien-2-one); 11, 3-hydroxy-α-ionone.

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