A wireless-implantable microsystem for continuous blood glucose monitoring

IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst. 2009 Jun;3(3):169-80. doi: 10.1109/TBCAS.2009.2016844.

Abstract

A remotely powered implantable microsystem for continuous blood glucose monitoring is presented. The microsystem consists of a microfabricated glucose biosensor flip-chip bonded to a transponder chip. The transponder chip is inductively powered by an external reader with a 13.56-MHz carrier. It then measures the output signal of the glucose biosensor and transmits the measured data back to the external reader using load-shift keying (LSK). The microsystem has a volume of 32 mm(3). The procedures for the microfabrication of the glucose sensor and the assembly of the microsystem are described along with the description of the circuit blocks of the transponder chip. The transponder chip has been fabricated with the TSMC 0.18-mum CMOS process and has a total area of 1.3 x 1.3 mm(2). The chip can measure the sensor output current ranging from 1 nA to 1 muA with less than 0.3% nonlinearity error, provided that the amplitude of the received RF signal is higher than 2.6 V; the circuit consumes a total current of about 110 muA.