Influence of objective three-dimensional measures and movement images on surgeon treatment planning for lip revision surgery

Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2013 Nov;50(6):684-95. doi: 10.1597/12-191. Epub 2013 Jul 15.


Objective : To determine whether a systematic evaluation of facial soft tissues of patients with cleft lip and palate, using facial video images and objective three-dimensional measurements of movement, change surgeons' treatment plans for lip revision surgery. Design : Prospective longitudinal study. Setting : The University of North Carolina School of Dentistry. Patients, Participants : A group of patients with repaired cleft lip and palate (n = 21), a noncleft control group (n = 37), and surgeons experienced in cleft care. Interventions : Lip revision. Main Outcome Measures : (1) facial photographic images; (2) facial video images during animations; (3) objective three-dimensional measurements of upper lip movement based on z scores; and (4) objective dynamic and visual three-dimensional measurement of facial soft tissue movement. Results : With the use of the video images plus objective three-dimensional measures, the operating surgeon changed the problem list of the surgical treatment plan for 86% of the patients (95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.97) and the surgical goals for 71% of the patients (95% confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.89). The surgeon group varied in the percentage of patients for whom the problem list was modified, ranging from 24% (95% confidence interval, 8% to 47%) to 48% (95% confidence interval, 26% to 70%) of patients, and the percentage for whom the surgical goals were modified, ranging from 14% (94% confidence interval, 3% to 36%) to 48% (95% confidence interval, 26% to 70%) of patients. Conclusions : For all surgeons, the additional assessment components of the systematic valuation resulted in a change in clinical decision making for some patients.

MeSH terms

  • Cleft Lip / surgery
  • Cleft Palate* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Lip* / surgery
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Prospective Studies
  • Surgeons