A multicentre cluster-randomized controlled study to evaluate a train-the-trainer programme for implementing internal and external participation in medical rehabilitation

Clin Rehabil. 2014 Jan;28(1):20-35. doi: 10.1177/0269215513494874. Epub 2013 Jul 15.


Objective: Evaluation of the effect of the train-the-trainer programme 'Fit for Shared Decision-Making' on internal (team) and external (patient) participation in medical rehabilitation from a patient and staff perspective.

Design: A multicentre, cluster-randomized controlled study.

Setting: Eleven medical rehabilitation clinics, divided into intervention and control groups.

Subjects: A staff and a patient survey were conducted pre- and post-intervention, plus a further patient survey six months later.

Intervention: Train-the-trainer programme 'Fit for Shared Decision-Making' for interprofessional settings.

Main measures: Each survey measured internal participation with a self-compiled six-item scale (Internal Participation Scale, IPS), and external participation by means of a nine-item Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9) for the patients and for healthcare professionals.

Results: Patient samples numbered 402 for the pre-, 463 for the post-intervention data collection period and 461 six months after the intervention. Patients' appraisal of external participation (Fperiod x group (2) = 0.256, p=0.774, η(2)=0.000) showed no change, whereas internal participation (Fperiod x group (2) = 3.785, p=0.023, η(2)=0.007) showed a significant increase. A total of 195 healthcare professionals participated in the pre- and 168 in the post-intervention staff survey. Here external participation was significantly enhanced in the intervention group (F(period x group) (1) = 4.893, p=0.028, η(2)=0.014).

Conclusions: The train-the-trainer approach can be recommended for implementing internal and external participation in interprofessional settings such as medical rehabilitation clinics. However, there is a need for more intensive staff training for internal participation and an additional intervention for patients to achieve success in all aspects.

Keywords: Shared decision-making; cluster-randomized controlled study; interprofessional team; patient-centred care; train-the-trainer programme.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Decision Making
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Care Team*
  • Patient Participation*
  • Rehabilitation / education*
  • Teaching / methods*