Focal cortical dysplasia

Pediatr Neurol. 2013 Aug;49(2):79-87. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2012.12.024.


Focal cortical dysplasias are among the most common causes of intractable epilepsy in children. As the neuropathology of these conditions has been better clarified, the nomenclature has undergone numerous revisions. Their recognition has grown with the use of neuroimaging, and recent advances in imaging technology will further improve detection. Clinical, electroencephalographic, and imaging findings are often diagnostic, so it is imperative for the clinician to recognize the characteristic patterns. Treatment for developmental and behavioral disability remains largely symptomatic, and epilepsy medications are often ineffective. Epilepsy surgery, however, can be successful in selected patients. The basic science underlying the development of focal cortical dysplasias may lead to novel therapeutic approaches in the future.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Malformations of Cortical Development* / diagnosis
  • Malformations of Cortical Development* / therapy