Ten children age 1 1/2 to 14 years, had bilateral nephrocalcinosis and hypercalciuria, but normal serum calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) concentrations. Patients with hypercalciuria were divided into absorptive (n = 4) and renal (n = 6) subgroups, and in the latter four patients had a primary Ca-leak and two had a P-leak. All the children had received intermittent high dose vitamin D prophylaxis during infancy. At the time of investigation all had normal serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, yet all but one had elevated values of 1,25-(OH)2D. Although the hypercalciuria was indistinguishable from the various known forms of idiopathic hypercalciuria, the previous clinical course and the pattern of bone mineral homeostasis suggest that both clinical features, namely nephrocalcinosis and hypercalciuria were related to vitamin D toxicity through various pathogenetic pathways.