The ubiquitin-like protein FAT10 (HLA-F adjacent transcript 10) is uniquely expressed in mammals. The fat10 gene is encoded in the MHC class I locus in the human genome and is related to some specific processes, such as apoptosis, immune response, and cancer. However, biological knowledge of FAT10 is limited, owing to the lack of identification of its conjugates. FAT10 covalently modifies proteins in eukaryotes, but only a few substrates of FAT10 have been reported until now, and no FATylated sites have been identified. Here, we report the proteome-scale identification of FATylated proteins by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We identified 175 proteins with high confidence as FATylated candidates. A total of 13 modified sites were identified for the first time by a modified search of the raw MS data. The modified sites were highly enriched with hydrophilic amino acids. Furthermore, the FATylation processes of hnRNP C2, PCNA, and PDIA3 were verified by a coimmunoprecipitation assay. We confirmed that most of the substrates were covalently attached to a FAT10 monomer. The functional distribution of the FAT10 targets suggests that FAT10 participates in various biological processes, such as translation, protein folding, RNA processing, and macromolecular complex assembly. These results should be very useful for investigating the biological functions of FAT10.